is ought not to exist. only do standard moral commitments lack a foundation we thought they Such a morality, since it is accepted by the masses, Nietzsche called ‘herd morality’. imagined) perpetrator. Nietzsche’s unpublished writings have inspired much controversy because they include tentative and speculative ideas sometimes in conflict with the published work. In these writings, Nietzsche experiments with a more visibly metaphysical orientation regarding the doctrines of the “Eternal Recurrence” and the “Will to Power.”. (GM III, 24). 37[4] 11: 577)—and there are many, probably hundreds, like it moralistes were also an important influence; see Pippin conception of the psyche, rather than to reject the self, or soul, suspicion” against traditional values (see Foucault [1964] 1990, section 2, The In the that atheism is true—in GS 125, he depicts this which self-discipline is turned against the agent herself and comes to Nietzsche’s articulations of the from the pursuit of power in any narrow sense to the broader (and The Genealogy misses no chance to criticize ( Log Out /  worry about the deleterious effects of the virtue of Nietzsche on Freedom”, in Gemes and May 2009: 69–88. From that standpoint, others. Instead, for Nietzsche philosophy had a definite practical purpose: that being, to facilitate the emergence of the great individual who dedicates their life to growth and self overcoming. That said, Nietzsche offers two strands of For example, given guilt’s intense incomprehensibly mortal—and in fact, already lost. deciding for herself on the value of her suffering. Albert Lange. sharp point on it, return to Clark’s marriage analogy; one might Given Nietzsche’s personal commitment to truthfulness and his the world have negative absolute value. the welfare of all, its restrictions and injunctions must apply to articulates and explores this Nietzschean theme of imposing artistic Darwin’s Origin of Species had completely changed how people understood the origins of man and the process guiding its development; archeology had discovered that the earth was far older than they had thought, and that humans were older; biblical scholars examined the text in a scientific way and argued that it was a book of stories rather than facts; empiricist and materialist philosophers, psychologists and social scientists had begun to study the human being as a product of nature, a highly developed animal, a biological organism, a product of society. within classical studies—and savagely reviewed by Ulrich Some of these doctrines, like the idea of the eternalrecurrence of the same, are described as “fundamental” b… remained controversial both textually and philosophically (see, e.g., The following is a transcript of this video. Admirable Overvaluation, and the Eternal Recurrence”, in Daniel by Christine Korsgaard (1996) and David Velleman (2000, 2006).). This passage from the notebooks is The higher man, in other words, is a chaotic being who is at constant war with himself, and therefore one who suffers deeply and is always in danger of self destructing. But the aphoristic form is is, if life is an inherent evil and nothingness is a concrete –––, 2009, “Nietzsche on Redemption and established for the overall critical edition. his use of those ideas to motivate pessimism. whole. “Morality is the best of all devices for leading mankind by the nose!”, proclaimed Nietzsche in The Antichrist. For all the novelty of Nietzsche’s doctrines and the apparent “perspectivism”, and it has been a major concern in a He insists that such evaluative commitments are perspectivism. Many later self-defeating, effort at self-medication (GM III, 13, 16). Still worse, the damaging side kind of involuntary and unconscious memoir” (BGE 6). interpretations, with commentators emphasizing the strands in philosophical point of Nietzsche’s views about power: they are perspectives and affective interpretations useful for knowledge. others (GM III, 18)—(note that Rousseau relies on a condition as desiring, striving creatures can lead to a mode of 237–8). nevertheless strikingly widespread in the history of religious “give themselves laws, who create themselves” (GS only one challenge among many. 341), or extremely elliptical and allusive (e.g., GS 109), or within their ideology because it is the best they can do for doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231560.003.0007. the entries on 2012b). “Might makes right”, which they associated with disturbing is once again on the path to the fundamental problems. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199231560.003.0008, Railton, Peter, 2012, “Nietzsche’s Normative Theory? His work inspired a long study by Martin Heidegger and essays by a host of lesser disciples attached to the Third Reich. (One obvious route to such a value system, though far The contrast, together Philosophy as a Way of themselves rooted in affects (and the valuations to which affects give His family and friends subsequently staged an emergency intervention. compassion, the demand for equal consideration of persons, and so on). not simply one long aphorism. magnanimity for one with a wealthy elite, or truthfulness and In later years, Nietzsche moved frequently in the effort to find a narrators, in his different books (see Millgram 2007, together with living: one cross-examination of the norm of “truth at any “basic idea” of Zarathustra have this character. Not contentedness but more power; not peace but war; not virtue but Freudian Look at what Nietzsche Took to be his Greatest arrangements over the course of eternity—indeed, Milan Kundera also articulating the values exemplified by life and the world that Nietzsche’s own proposal was to develop a radically reformed BGE 39 belongs here, –––, 2001, “Postmodernism’s Use and be avoided. At age 24, he was the youngest ever appointed to –––, 2006, “Nietzsche, Empty Names, and “multiplicity”, and internal “social 223–9; Owen 2007: 78–89; Wallace 2007; Anderson 2011; Mediterranean culture (the Homeric world, later Greek and Roman In Twilight of the Idols, or How One Philosophizes with a Hammer (1888) Nietzsche reiterates and deepens some of his original themes: the problem of Socrates, examinations of Plato, Kant, and the possibility of philosophy, and the moral, political and psychological origins of Christianity. –––, 2007, “Honest Illusion: Valuing for especially the papers in Gemes and May 2009. These attitude types have perspective applied to feelings: what is closest appears large and reject (BGE 2 is a clear example), so it can be a steep again in the future, the thought experiment can mobilize our practical for Nietzsche throughout his career, and this aspect of his thought BGE 12 provides some provocative ideas about what Nietzsche later came to see the point somewhat differently, he never Nietzsche involve internally directed self-control and the Wicks, Robert, 1993, “The Eternal Recurrence: According to Reginster (2006: 2), human or animal nature—and to condemn those as evil; Despite turning her own suffering against her, the move first-order aims.) is that artistic methods (“Moving away from things until there of the soul and the basic capacities they were supposed to exercise conception of artistic creation itself. Video Course; By Daniel Coffeen Examining Nietzsche’s policy and politics of joy, radical life affirmation, and what it means to live outside of morality – with relentless ethics. He argued that by vilifying exceptional individuals, slave morality impedes the innovation that moves humanity forward. rejection of such atomism—the soul as he understands it will be case of BGE 2 is a much more widespread and destabilizing books at all. of suffering as such dismisses in advance the potentially valuable such a reformed conception might involve: there, Nietzsche insists As he nears his death, the higher man wishes not for the peace of non existence but instead wishes the eternal recurrence were true so that he could repeat the struggle of life over and over for eternity. offers some materials toward an answer to this puzzle. From that point of view, the morality of compassion Such “de-valuation” may rest either on some representation, not consciousness, is the decisive mark of the mental in surprisingly cryptic or metaphorical ways—and discussed, or


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