1. Surgery and radiation are used to cure squamous cell carcinoma. Immune cells, such as macrophages, roam the area and engulf any foreign matter to reduce the chance of infection. Many different types of cells are involved in wound repair, especially if the surface area that needs repair is extensive. By the end of this section, you will be able to: Discuss several common diseases, disorders, and injuries that affect the integumentary system. Doctors often give their patients the following ABCDE mnemonic to help with the diagnosis of early-stage melanoma. In this section, you will learn several of the most common skin conditions. Squamous cell carcinoma presents here as a lesion on an individual’s nose. Increased blood flow results in apparent redness and heat. Burns are sometimes measured in terms of the size of the total surface area affected. Bedsores, also called decubitis ulcers, are caused by constant, long-term, unrelieved pressure on certain body parts that are bony, reducing blood flow to the area and leading to necrosis (tissue death). The skin can also be affected by pressure associated with rapid growth. It is the most fatal of all skin cancers, as it is highly metastatic and can be difficult to detect before it has spread to other organs. Mild sunburn fits into the category of a first-degree burn. Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance, 27.3 Physiology of the Female Sexual System, 27.4 Physiology of the Male Sexual System, 28.4 Maternal Changes During Pregnancy, Labor, and Birth, 28.5 Adjustments of the Infant at Birth and Postnatal Stages. In this section, you will learn several of the most common skin conditions. The Cellular Level of Organization, 3.2 The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles, Chapter 4. Eczema is an allergic reaction that manifests as dry, itchy patches of skin that resemble rashes (Figure 5.4.4). This plug is initially white. \n Diseases … The swollen tissues squeezing pain receptors cause the sensation of pain. The integumentary system is susceptible to a variety of diseases, disorders, and injuries. They can be caused by sharp objects, heat, or excessive pressure or friction to the skin. Severe acne can potentially lead to scarring due to the natural wound healing process (Figure 5.4.5). Skin cancer facts [Internet]. This occurs because the basal stem cells in the stratum basale are triggered to divide more often to increase the thickness of the skin at the point of abrasion to protect the rest of the body from further damage. When there is a gaping wound, it takes longer to refill the area with cells and collagen. Epithelial and connective tissues replace damaged or dead cells from a supply of adult stem cells. Skin Cancer Foundation (US). The Cardiovascular System: Blood, Chapter 19. Bedsores, also called decubitis ulcers, are caused by constant, long-term, unrelieved pressure on certain body parts that are bony, reducing blood flow to the area and leading to necrosis (tissue death). Have you ever had a skin rash that did not respond to over-the-counter creams, or a mole that you were concerned about? This is referred to as the “rule of nines,” which associates specific anatomical areas with a percentage that is a factor of nine (Figure 5.4.6). Instead, the tissue is fibrous in nature and does not allow for the regeneration of accessory structures, such as hair follicles, sweat glands, or sebaceous glands. Scars are made of collagen and do not have the cellular structure of normal skin. Botox injections, laser treatments, and collagen and dermal filler injections are popular among patients, hoping to reduce the appearance of skin aging. Unlike the other bodily systems throughout the body, the integumentary system is not localized to one area or region of the body; instead, the integumentary system … Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) reduce pain because they inhibit the synthesis of prostaglandins. A primary union describes the healing of a wound where the edges are close together. Although UV rays are the main culprit, exposure to other agents, such as radiation and arsenic, can also lead to this type of cancer. Eczema is an allergic reaction that manifests as a rash, and acne results from clogged sebaceous glands. Scars are made of collagen and do not have the cellular structure of normal skin. In general, skin cancers can be reduced by limiting exposure to the sun. During wound repair, collagen fibers are laid down randomly by fibroblasts that move into repair the area. (credit: the National Cancer Institute). Treatment options include surgery, freezing (cryosurgery), and topical ointments (Mayo Clinic 2012). Some of these disorders can also be contagious to others. Calluses can also form on your fingers if they are subject to constant mechanical stress, such as long periods of writing, playing string instruments, or video games. Another serious threat to the lives of burn patients is infection. Other disorders, not discussed here, include seborrheic dermatitis (on the scalp), psoriasis, cold sores, impetigo, scabies, hives, and warts. Overexposure to UV radiation damages DNA, which can lead to the formation of cancerous lesions. However, modern cosmetic procedures, such as dermabrasion, laser treatments, and filler injections have been invented as remedies for severe scarring. Teenagers experience this at high rates because the sebaceous glands become active during puberty. One of the most talked about diseases is skin cancer. may be predisposing factors as well. The sebum, when oxidized by exposure to air, turns black. Because the skin is the part of our bodies that meets the world most directly, it is especially vulnerable to injury. Burns are also classified by the degree of their severity: Oddly, third and fourth-degree burns are usually not as painful because the nerve endings themselves are damaged. If not removed, these carcinomas can metastasize. A stretch mark results when the dermis is stretched beyond its limits of elasticity, as the skin stretches to accommodate the excess pressure. Scarring of skin after wound healing is a natural process and does not need to be treated further. Bedsores are most common in elderly patients who have debilitating conditions that cause them to be immobile. Orderly Functioning of The Integumentary System. It is the second most common skin cancer. Figure 3. Figure 6. Treatment options include surgery, freezing (cryosurgery), and topical ointments (Mayo Clinic 2012). If inflammation persists, it becomes chronic and leads to diseased conditions. Lindsay M. Biga, Sierra Dawson, Amy Harwell, Robin Hopkins, Joel Kaufmann, Mike LeMaster, Philip Matern, Katie Morrison-Graham, Devon Quick & Jon Runyeon, http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003139-pdf.pdf, http://www.lpch.org/diseasehealthinfo/healthlibrary/burns/classify.html, http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/basal-cell-carcinoma/ds00925/dsection=treatments-and-drugs, http://www.popsci.com/science/article/2011-01/fyi-how-much-can-human-body-sweat-it-runs-out, http://www.skincancer.org/skin-cancer-information/skin-cancer-facts#top, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, Describe several different diseases and disorders of the skin, Describe the effect of injury to the skin and the process of healing. Basal cell carcinoma is a form of cancer that affects the mitotically active stem cells in the stratum basale of the epidermis. In general, cancers result from an accumulation of DNA mutations. Chapter 1. If left untreated by removal of necrotized tissue, bedsores can be fatal if they become infected. Squamous cell carcinoma is a cancer that affects the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum and presents as lesions commonly found on the scalp, ears, and hands (Figure 2). Watch this video to learn more about skin grafting procedures. Application of mineral oil and lotions may reduce the formation of scar tissue. The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue, 12.1 Structure and Function of the Nervous System, Chapter 13. A corn is a specialized form of callus. Integumentary System Diseases. Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital at Stanford (US). http://cnx.org/contents/14fb4ad7-39a1-4eee-ab6e-3ef2482e3e22@8.79, Describe several different disorders of the skin, Describe the effect of injury to the skin, are easily treatable and not a major health concern, can be reduced by limiting exposure to the sun. Sometimes, there is an overproduction of scar tissue, because the process of collagen formation does not stop when the wound is healed; this results in the formation of a raised or hypertrophic scar called a keloid. Prostaglandins released from injured cells also activate pain neurons. Burn patients are treated with intravenous fluids to offset dehydration, as well as intravenous nutrients that enable the body to repair tissues and replace lost proteins.

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